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JOHN R. TURNER,
Petitioner-Appellant,
v.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
Respondent-Appellee.
   No. 15-6060
Appeal from the United States District Court for
the Western District of Tennessee at Memphis.
Nos. 2:12-cv-02266; 2:08-cr-20302-1—Samuel H. Mays, Jr., District Judge.
Argued: October 11, 2017
Decided and Filed: March 23, 2018
Before: COLE, Chief Judge; BATCHELDER, MOORE, CLAY, GIBBONS,
ROGERS, SUTTON, COOK, McKEAGUE, GRIFFIN, KETHLEDGE, WHITE,
STRANCH, DONALD, THAPAR, and BUSH, Circuit Judges.


_________________________
OPINION
_________________________

ALICE M. BATCHELDER, Circuit Judge. Appellant John Turner asks us to overrule nearly four decades of circuit precedent holding that the Sixth Amendment right to counsel does not extend to preindictment plea negotiations. See United States v. Moody, 206 F.3d 609, 614– 15 (6th Cir. 2000) (citing United States v. Sikora, 635 F.2d 1175 (6th Cir. 1980)). We decline to do so. Our rule—copied word for word from the Supreme Court’s rule—is that the Sixth Amendment right to counsel attaches only “at or after the initiation of judicial criminal proceedings—whether by way of formal charge, preliminary hearing, indictment, information, or arraignment.” Id. at 614 (quoting Kirby v. Illinois, 406 U.S. 682, 689 (1972) (plurality opinion)); see also United States v. Gouveia, 467 U.S. 180, 188 (1984). The district court followed this rule, and we AFFIRM.