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PETER CARL BORMUTH,
Plaintiff-Appellant,
v.
COUNTY OF JACKSON,
Defendant-Appellee.
   No. 15-1869
Appeal from the United States District Court
for the Eastern District of Michigan at Detroit.
No. 2:13-cv-13726—Marianne O. Battani, District Judge.
Argued: June 14, 2017
Decided and Filed: September 6, 2017
Before: COLE, Chief Judge; BATCHELDER, MOORE, CLAY, GIBBONS, ROGERS,
SUTTON, COOK, McKEAGUE, GRIFFIN, KETHLEDGE, WHITE, STRANCH, DONALD,
and THAPAR, Circuit Judges.


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OPINION
_________________________

GRIFFIN, Circuit Judge. Since the founding of our Republic, Congress, state legislatures, and many municipal bodies have commenced legislative sessions with a prayer. Consonant with this historical practice, defendant Jackson County Board of Commissioners opens its public meetings with a prayer that is generally solemn, respectful, and reflective. Plaintiff Peter Bormuth claims that this custom violates the Establishment Clause of the United States Constitution because the Commissioners themselves offer the invocations. We disagree and affirm the judgment of the district court.

In doing so, we hold that Jackson County’s invocation practice is consistent with the Supreme Court’s legislative prayer decisions, Marsh v. Chambers, 463 U.S. 783 (1983), and Town of Greece v. Galloway, 134 S. Ct. 1811 (2014), and does not violate the Establishment Clause.